Monday, February 24, 2020
Network security infrastructure - Essay Example On the other hand, Internet Security Infrastructure is the arrangement of components and tools, in a bid to offer the most effective internet protection. Before one settles on a particular plan to use, it is of the essence to clearly state the objectives of the plan. I, as a result, had to carefully select a plan that would enable me achieve the above goals at the lowest cost possible. My plan includes firewall, web contents, protection against web pharming, and phishing. A firewall is a choke-point garget that consists of a set of rules and instructions specifying the type of data to allow in or out of the system. It basically controls the flow of data into and out of the system. There several types of firewalls in the market. In this case, I chose on Zone-Alarm based on its outstanding features and performance. Zone-Alarm is a multi-purpose firewall. It is capable performing several functions simultaneously. Such functions include protecting the system against internet exposure, protecting the system against web pharming and phishing. The firewall is programmed so as to prevent any malicious emails from getting into the mail server. The use of this type is very economical, in that it forms several functions at ago, hence saves on cost. This is a server program that is responsible for handling the end-user requests to access the system. AAA server gives authorization, authorization, and accounting services. It is at this station where the users request to access the system is either accepted or rejected. Routers are referred to as traffic cops of a network system. Their function is to direct traffic into and out of the system. They also direct traffic within the network system. The process decision of a router is normally contained in a routing table. The routers are programmed so as to prevent the possible routing threats such as complete network chaos, dropped traffic, and traffic sent along invalid paths. The
Saturday, February 8, 2020
The Internal Control over Cash Payments - Assignment Example No supervisor reviews the purchasing agentÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ (The case study A, n.d.). In this case, the missing internal control characteristic is the proper approvals of the purchasing activities. The possible problem of the firm is a failure on the part of the purchasing department of the company to supervise and properly approve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s purchases. The reason is that the purchasing agent bears the responsibility of approving the invoices and signing the checks without any supervision. This problem can be solved if the purchasing department assumes its supervisory responsibility for the purchasing activities of the company. Ã¢â¬Å"Rachel Williams owns an architectural firm. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ staff consists of 19 professional architects, and Williams manages the office. Often, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ work requires her to travel to meet with clients. During the past six months, Williams has observed that when she returns from a business trip, the architecture jobs in the office have not progressed satisfactorily. Williams learns that when she is away, two of her senior architects take over office management and neglect their regular duties. One employee could manage the officeÃ¢â¬ (The case study B, n.d.). In this case, the missing internal control characteristic is lack of separation of duties. The possible problem of the firm is a failure on the part of the top management (Rachel Williams, the owner of the firm) to distinguish the duties of the two senior architects, especially in her absence. The possible solution to the problem lies in making one of the senior architects an assistant manager. This way, imp ortant tasks will be performed both in the presence and the absence of the manager. Ã¢â¬Å"Mike Dolan has been an employee of the City of Southport for many years. Because the city is small, Dolan performs all accounting duties, in addition to opening the mail, preparing the bank deposit, and preparing the bank reconciliationÃ¢â¬ .
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Impact of Motivation on workers productivity in the construction industry Essay This is a research on the relationship between motivation and performance of workers in the Nigerian construction industry. It identifies a number of motivational schemes that enhance the performance of workers. Findings from the research on productivity of construction workers are reported. Two sets of questionnaires were employed in the study. One set was administered on management staff and the other on operatives. The study reveals that salaries paid to operatives in the study were below the stipulations of the Nigerian National Joint Industry Council. It further shows that operatives are rarely promoted, and operatives prefer financial incentives to nonfinancial incentives. The study recommends that increases in salary via promotion, overtime allowances and holidays with pay should be used as motivators (financial incentives) for increase in performance of construction workers (operatives). Keywords: construction, incentives, motivation, operatives, productivity. INTRODUCTION The output of the construction industry constitutes one-half of the gross capital, and three to eight percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in most countries (Arditi and Morkhtar 2000). Mee-Edoiye and Andawei (2000) declared that the employees in the civil and building construction industry of a country are the largest. The population of the workers compared to the whole workforce of a nation is significant. Anything done to the employees could either make or mar the quality of their work, the speed of progress,Ã the economy of the country and the social well-being of the workers. It follows from the foregoing therefore that workers should be well motivated for high performance and for the production of good quality products. However, despite this significant role the industry plays in the Nigerian national economy, the performance has not been impressive. Eldin and Egger (1990) noted that construction productivity has been declining steadily in spite of the rising cost and large labour intensive nature of construction projects around the world. The decline in the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance causes the failure of the building industry to deliver projects timely with the obvious consequences of cost overrun. Labour productivity according to Akindele (2003) is defined as labour output per day (man-day). This is often reduced by delayed, unclear or inadequate instructions, provision of poor tools and equipment, unbalanced work gangs, use of working method, lack of incentives, and failure to delegate authority from senior to lower level supervisors (Heap 1987). Aiyetan and Olotuah The productivity of individuals, which in turn affects the productivity of a company, is a very important parameter to watch as it measures a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive power. It is an indicator of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profit margin, a measure of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s survival in business, a yardstick for remuneration of employees, and a means of recognition of hard work. LITERATURE REVIEW Productivity Productivity measures how efficiently resources are employed, It is defined as the ratio of a specific measure of output to a specific measure of inputÃ per unit of labour and is measured as total output divided by the members of units of labour employed to produce that output Williams (1997) defines human capital (labour) as the accumulated knowledge, skill and experience of the labour force. As individual workers acquire more human capital, their productivity and hence their income grows. Labour comprises the broad category of human effort, both physical and mental directed towards productivity. Motivation Motivation is an art targeted to getting people work willingly, and an art of inducing one to behave in a particular manner to achieve a task. Mee-Edoiye and Andawei (2002) viewed motivation as a human engineering approach being triggered by the individual needs. Flippo (1982) defined motivation as a psychological process initiated by the emergence of needs involving a goal directed action and behaviour aimed at satisfying a particular desire. It is the inducement given to workers for higher output. Motivated behaviour has three basic characteristics: 1. It is sustained Ã¢â¬â it is maintained for a long time until satisfied. 2. It is goal-directed Ã¢â¬â it seeks to achieve an objective. 3. It results from a felt need Ã¢â¬â an urge directed towards a need. Several authors including Robert and GeneNeuport (1995), Williams (1997) and Cole (1999) have propounded theories to help to understand the human being and how to handle him to get goals achieved. The theories propounded include: 1. The MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow developed a needsÃ¢â¬âbased theory of motivation. People are extraordinary complex creatures with many motives for behaviours on and off the job. Maslow (1954) identified and analyzed five basic needs, which he believed underlay all human behaviours, these needs relate to physiology (the needs for food water, air and sex), security (safety, the absence of illness), society or affiliation (friendship, interaction, love), esteem (respect and recognition), and self actualization (the ability to reach oneÃ¢â¬â¢s potentials). These are perceptions for high performance and productivity of individuals. Before Maslow, most managers assumed that money primarily motivated people. With MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s work, managers can evaluate their own actions, their companies conduct and their individual philosophies about people. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s needs theory presented a workable motivation framework for managers. 2. McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Hygiene Theories X and Y Motivation on workers productivity An unmet need can frustrate an employee and make him unproductive. Douglas McGregor published the human side of enterprise in 1960. In it, he explained that managers operate from one or two basic assumptions about human behaviour: Theory X and Theory Y. The first theory, the view traditionally held about labour, portrayed workers in industry as being lazy and needing to be coerced, controlled and directed. The second described people as McGregor thought them to be; responsible, willing to learn and given the proper incentives inherently motivated to exercise ingenuity and creativity. McGregor holds the view that the traditional way of treating people Ã¢â¬â regarding them as unthinking, uncaring robots Ã¢â¬â must change. Indeed, McGregor stressed that only by changing these assumptions could managers tap workersÃ¢â¬â¢ or labourersÃ¢â¬â¢ vast talents. He emphasized that what matters was how people were treated and valued in their work settings. He went further by advising man agers to give employees a chance to contribute, take control and responsibility. Table 1 shows the assumptions of Theories X and Y. With these theories, managers could discover what employees want from workplace, how to enlist their cooperation and commitment and how to unleash their talents, energy and creativity for their ultimate goal, which in most cases is high level of productivity. Familiarity with theories of motivation allows a manager an educated viewpoint from which to consider how to develop workers, capture commitment and develop a positive work environment. Table 1: Assumption about workers according to theory X and theory Y Theory X People basically dislike work and avoid it whenever possible Because most people dislike work, they have to be closely supervised and threatened with punishment to reach objectives. Most people have little creativity. They are not capable of solving problems. Rather, they must be directed. Most people have limited intellectual potential. Contribution above basic job performance should not be expected. Theory Y Most people find work as natural as play or rest and develop an attitude towards work based on their experience with it. People do not need to be threatened with punishment; they will work voluntarily toward organizational objectives to which they are committed. Most people possess a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity with which to solve organizational problems. Although people have intellectual potential, modern industrial life utilizes only part of it. Source: Plunkett and Attener (1994) The core of theories X and Y is that a management philosophy influences the type of work climate the manager endeavours to create and ultimately, how the manager treats people. Frederick HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s two-factor theory developed in (1975) also called hygienemotivator. One set of the theory defines factors that lead to job satisfaction; these factors are called hygiene factors. Salary: To prevent job dissatisfaction, a manger should provide adequate wages, salaries, and fringe benefits. Job security: Company grievance procedures and seniority privileges contribute to high-quality hygiene. Aiyetan and Olotuah Working conditions: Managers ensure adequate heat, light, ventilation, and hours of work to prevent dissatisfaction. Status: Managers who are mindful of the importance of hygiene factors provide privileges, job titles, and other symbols of rank and position. Company policies: To prevent job dissatisfaction, managers should provide policies as guidelines for behaviour and administer the policies fairly. Quality of technical supervision: When employees are not able to receive answers to job-related questions, they become frustrated. Providing highquality technical supervision for employees prevents frustration. Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, supervisors, and subordinates: In an organization with high-quality hygiene factors, the workplace provides social opportunities as well as the chance to enjoy comfortable work-related relationships. The other set of factor the theory defines is that which produces job satisfaction and motivation called motivators. Achievement: The opportunity to accomplish something or contribute something of value can serve as a source of job satisfaction. Recognition: Wise managers let employees know that their efforts have been worthwhile and that management notes and appreciates them. Responsibility: The potential for acquiring new duties and responsibilities, through either job expansion or delegation, can be a powerful motivator for some workers. Advancement: The opportunity to improve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position because of job performance gives employees a clear reason for high performance. The work itself: When a task offers the opportunity for self-expression, personal satisfaction, and meaningful challenge, employees are likely toÃ undertake the task with enthusiasm. Possibility of growth: The opportunity to increase knowledge and personal development is likely to lead to job satisfaction. TYPES OF MOTIVATION Motivation can be classified into two categories. These are non-financial and financial incentives schemes. Non-financial motivation is intangible; it includes advancement, the work itself, responsibility, recognition, relations with co-workers, company policy and working institutions. Financial Incentive Scheme There are two areas into which financial incentives scheme fall; those of operatives and those of managers. According to Cole (1997), incentive scheme for managers include, extra payments or increase in salaries, fringe benefits covering such items as, car, sickness benefits, free education for managersÃ¢â¬â¢ children, and free holidays. Others are free lunches, free travel abroad with wife and family, access to newspapers and journals, free interest loan and free medical scheme (Pigors 1981). Financial Incentives Schemes to Operatives Cole (1997) gave a list of financial incentives to operatives, which include good holiday pay, extra pay for shift work and uncomfortable, dirty and unhealthy conditions, profit sharing, long service allowances, overtime availability when operatives require it, pension fund contribution by the company, death benefits and dependants, employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s liability insurance and medical facility to operativeÃ¢â¬â¢s family. METHODOLOGY The study was carried out in Nigeria, and random sampling technique was used for selecting firms for study. Some towns where construction activities are high were selected; one from each of the three parts of the country (the north, east and west). Abuja, Port-Harcourt and Lagos were chosen. Since construction processes are the same throughout the country, these towns were used as representative samples of the study area since all towns cannot be reached for the study due to the huge sum of money that would be required as well as the time needed for such an endeavour. The target population for the study was the management staff (architects, builders, quantity surveyors and engineers) and contractors. In order to obtain the sample size of the study, the Corporate Affairs Commission was visited to obtain the number of registered companies with them and particularly those that have their head offices in the selected towns. A total of 96 companies were listed (registered), the formula be low given by Siegel and Castellan (1988) was used to obtain the sample size. It gave a sample size of 16 companies. Data was collected from 74 questionnaires. The operatives were asked the kind of motivation the management gives to them and they prefer to indicate their productivity as high. The management staff was also asked the kind of motivation they give and that which operatives prefer for high productivity. The mean score of the sum of central tendency (statistical tool) was used for the analysis of data since parameters analyzed is small. Presentation and Analysis of Data from questionnaire type 1 (for management) Majority of the respondents, 33.33% showed that the salary paid is slightly below the Nigerian National Joint Industrial Council (NJIC) agreement. For 27.27% construction firms pay exactly NJIC agreement, and 21.21% assert that salaries paidÃ construction workers are far below NJIC agreement, while 18.18% indicated that salaries paid construction workers is a little above NJIC. From the analysis, it could be seen that most of the organizations pay salary, which is below NJIC agreement, and this may affect the performance of workers negatively (Table 2) Table 2: Salary structure used compared with current NJIC agreement S/N Salary Structure Far above NJIC agreement A little above NJIC agreement Exactly NJIC agreement Slightly below NJIC agreement Far below NJIC agreement No. of Respondents 0 6 9 11 7 33 Percentage of Respondents 0% 18.18% 27.27% 33.33% 21.21% 100% Source: Fieldwork, 2005 Twenty nine percent (29%) of the organizations carry out promotion on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy because of performance of workers. The study found out that promotion is not done on a regular basis, for example after every 3 years but based on the performance of workers (Table 3). Of all the motivating factors available in the construction industry, the most used for higher performance is overtime with 9.4% followed by health care services with 9.0% and thirdly by provision of transportation facility to and from work with 8.9%. The least used motivating factor is profit sharing with 3.3% followed by telephone services. The reason for overtime being used mostly as motivation for higher performance is that to the operatives, they receive money in return and while to the organization work done is increased. While health care services, which are free put confidence into workers to work hard, and when sick they will be taken adequate care of without spending money of their own (Table 4). As far as the operatives are concerned, the motivation they preferred most is holiday abroad with pay. The mean ranking is 7.79%. The likely reason that could be adduced for this is that, workers will be exposed to more experience in their field of work, to the latest available tools and equipment, better construction techniques/methods, which makes them become experts in their field and hence production will be faster and with higher quality. This will have a resultant effect on their cadre, as they will receive promotion. Increase in salary is the second most preferred motivating factor, which comes naturally. They will be able to send their children to good schools, feed well and have a sense of belonging in the society. The least preferred motivating factor is telephone services, followed by responsibility. This is because it is not a financial gain (Table 5). Presentation and Analysis of Data from Questionnaire Type 11 (For Operatives) Most (51.22%) operatives indicated that salaries paid them is a little below NJIC agreement. This makes workers not to work well as they feel cheated and thereby it affects productivity negatively (Table 6). The two groups agree that salaries paid workers are slightly below NJIC agreement. Most of the operatives (26.4%) have a view that promotion is given to those who have people to influence it for them. While 26.2% hold the opinion that promotion is based on performance, and another 26.2% opine that promotion is rarely done (Table 7). An increase in salary of workers makes them committed to hard work for high productivity. It is the first among all the factors ranked. Following this is promotion, which if regular keeps the workers focused on their job, due to the evaluation report that shall be made at the end of year and later compiled for use as promotion guide. Next to this is overtime, which increases the take home pay of the workers at the end of the month, and makes them to work harder. The least factors that could induce the workers to working hard are telephone services, responsibility and the work itself. The reason could be that they do not have financial reward to the operatives directly (Table 8). A comparison of the questionnaires shows that both groups agree that the salary paid to labourers is slightly lower than the NJIC recommendation. This is likely to affect the labourersÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity and may be one of the reasons that delay in delivery of projects is experienced on majority of projects. There is a difference of opinion on the policy of organizations on the promotion of operatives. While the management claims that it is done very regularly and fair, the operatives believe it is rarely done and if done at all it is for those who have godfathers. The most motivating factors according to the management are overtime pay, health care services and provision of transportation in this order, whereas the operatives opine that these are increase in salary, promotion and overtime pay. RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations are hereby made based on the analysis of data from the field and conclusion reached. 1.Ã Companies are requested to adjust their salary structure to reflect the NJIC recommendation; this will enhance the performance of workers. 2.Ã Management should be concerned with the welfare of the workers and their families. This will give the workers a sense of belonging and being appreciated will make them to be focused and completely committed to their work. 3.Ã Increase in salary; promotion, overtime and holiday with pay should be used as motivators for increase in performance of construction workers. 4.Ã Promotion should be done regularly and should be based on performance of workers. CONCLUSION The paper discusses the impact of motivation on the productivity of workers in the Nigerian construction industry. Since motivation is an inducement for higher output it should be accorded a right of place by employers of labour for the construction industry to achieve higher productivity, which will lead to greater contribution to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s Gross Domestic Output. REFERENCES Akindele, O A (2003) Craftsmen and Labour Productivity in the Swaziland Construction Industry. CIDB 1st Postgraduate Conference, University of Withwatersrand, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Arditi, D and Mokhtar, K (2000) Trends in Productivity Improvement in the US Construction Industry. Construction Management and Economics, 18(2), 15-27 Cole G A (1997) Personal management, 1st Edition Ashford Colour Press. Eldin, N N and Egger, S (1990) Productivity improvement tools, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 116(1), 100-110. Flippo, E B (1982) Personnel Management, 5th Edition, McGraw hill Inc. London Heap, A (1987) Improving Site Productivity in the Construction Industry. International Labour Office, Geneva Plunkett, W.R and Attner, R.F (1999) Introduction to Management 5th Edition, International Thomson Publishing, California. pp. 43-47, 394-407. Pigors P J W (1981) Personnel Administration: A point of view and method. 9th Edition, McGraw-Hill International Auckland Maslow, A H (1954): Motivation and Personality, Harper and Row, New York Mee-Edoiye, M and Andawei M.M (2002): Motivation, An Alternative to improve workers performance in Today Construction Industry. The Quantity Surveyor. 40(3), 2-6. Cole, G. A. (1999) Management: theory and practice. 5ed. Asford Colour Press, Gosport: Great Britain, 33Ã¢â¬â76 Robert, L. Trewatha and M. Gene Neuport (1995) Management. 3ed. Business Publication Inc. 359Ã¢â¬â367. Williams A. McEachern (1997) Economics. A Contemporary Introduction. 4ed. Southwestern College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio. pp. 111. Siegel, S. and Castellan, N. J. (1988). Non-parmetric statistics for the behavioural science. McGraw-hill Book Co., Singapore.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ralph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Invisible Man shows the conflict or struggle of one Black man struggling in a white culture. The most important section of this novel is that in, which the narrator joins Ã¢â¬Å"the BrotherhoodÃ¢â¬ , an organization designed to improve the condition under which his race is at the time. The narrator works hard for society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The narrator works hard for being rewarded society and his efforts named the representative of Harlem district. One of the first people he meets is Brother Tarp, a veteran worker in the Harlem district, who gives the narrator the chain link he broke nineteen years ago, while freeing himself from being imprisoned. Brother Tarp's imprisonment was for standing up to a white man. Therefore, he was sent to jail. Imprisonment made brother Tarp similar to invisible because, he lost part of his identity. However, he regained it by escaping the prison and giving himself a new name. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The chain plays an interesting part in the entire play. The chain symbolizes the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s experience in college, where he was restricted to living up to Dr. BredsoeÃ¢â¬â¢s rules. He feels that he too is trying to be an individual free of others peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s control. The chain functions as a link in several ways, between the two men, between the past and the present, as a symbol of opression, and eventually as a weapon for the Invisible Man as he uses it to fight in a street riot. It reminds the narrator significally of his grandfather, a man repressed by the system who went through his entire life trying to obey but at the same time hating all the men in power. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At the end of the novel, the narrator continues to fight for his community. He feels betrayed and now he wants to destroy Ã¢â¬Å"The BrotherhoodÃ¢â¬ . His plan does not work out. He tells the people of Harlem to go on a riot. He falls down though, he gets into isolation. While in isolation he decides that he wants to go back to the society. He grows to understand what the brotherhood and what Mr. Bedsoe (mentor) could never understood, that individuality doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exclude being part of a group. He learned to be an individual for himself. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I personally, enjoyed reading Ã¢â¬Å"The Invisible ManÃ¢â¬ by Ralph Ellison. The book I read was nonfiction, it was published in _______, copyright date _______.
Monday, January 13, 2020
When we have made a commitment to work with and develop nursing theory, it is important to keep in mind that this activity is crucial to establish scientific foundations in nursing. The first line of teaching and learning in nursing is based on linear thinking, arguing to promote the student's vision of cause / effect when, for example, this is in the process of providing the patient with an anticoagulant for DVT prevention at a patient and requires monitoring by protocol, bleeding adverse effect, or also monitor the heart rate, or blood pressure levels, and heart rate when the patient requires to receive anti-arrhythmic or digoxin. In the latter case, with a retro feedback mechanism, put into action when the resident and blood sample taken to measure the Digoxin level in order to adjust the dose, seeking the drug's effectiveness and thus the patient's clinical stability. During the development of nursing theory, it is important to realize as we are thinking when we find or look for a problem to solve. For this creative thinking plays an important role. Researchers have described various methods of creative thinking among them these three: Evolution: This is a method of continuous incremental improvement. We can gestate new ideas from existing ideas, or seek and find a solution derived from another, obtaining at the end a solution that we would not have imagined from the beginning with a single step. The result will be something totally different to the original. Synthesis: This method of thought goes into action when two or more existing ideas are combined to create a third, new idea. Reapplication: This method of creative thinking comes into play when we see something otherwise stated, entirely new. The key is to see beyond the prior application of any idea or method and thus demonstrate if the other application is feasible. When we encounter a problem in some cases may emerge any negative attitude may hinder and even block our creative thinking. For you I have noticed that, when unforeseen circumstances I get the load of 25 or more patients in the institution where they take care of patients in long term care must run at a faster pace than usual, with proper care to prevent errors but when there is an unexpected situation arises in my mind: Ã¢â¬Å"a situation more, adding to the complex repertoire of tasks to accomplish!. This idea looks something like this:Ã¢â¬ Oh! Now this? Ã¢â¬Å". If so, at the time of first reaction, I was adding a bigger problem than the situation itself, having to deal with and solve it before continuing with the rest of the investigation of the case. The next question that arises if this occurs I would be: Why am I thinking and / or feeling this? This happens with the patient TH has relationship with his previous medical history? Psychological/cultural context? It has happened before? Why has this happened? Is there any background prior to solve this? At this point I realize that I am involved in an active process of search, first to understand the phenomenon, and then how to solve it. This positive attitude (curiosity) helped me to think creatively. Another attitude that has helped me is to believe that most problems can be solved; all a matter of time, energy and resources. Also, and especially, to attack the problem from the moment when it is detected, since otherwise, can add what I call collateral problems. Even more, I can say that I stay alert not to make value judgments or criticisms that may that may contaminate the process of addressing the problem with my own prejudices, alienate adding unnecessary elements in time and possibilities to solve this problem. References Harris, R. (1998). Introduction to creative thinking; Retrieved from: https://www. virtualsalt. com/crebook1htm. Rapadoupulus, Irena; Omeri, Akram. Transcultural nursing theory and models: The challenges of application. Contemporary nurse. 28(1-2):45-7, 2008. Apr. Editorial. Jennings, BM. Nursing Theory development, successes, and challenges. Journal of advanced nursing
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A Leading Indicators Comparison of the United States and Japanese Economies The United States has for more than a century maintained the largest economy in the world. Japan, on the other hand, currently has the third largest economy in the world (according to some estimates) after realizing incredible growth since the damage and ruin it experienced during World War II (BBC, 2015). This essay compares and contrasts the current economies of the United States and Japan in terms of three leading economic indicators: real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation, and unemployment. While some similarities exist between the two economies this comparison will highlight what the differences mean in terms of economic health for the two countries. Real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) One of the most comprehensive measurements of the health and well-being of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is considered real GDP (AIAA, 2003). Real GDP is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"value of the entire output produced annually within a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s boundaries, adjusted for price changesÃ¢â¬ (Arnold, 2011, p. 145). According to the American Association of Individual Investors (AIAA), (2003), real GDP indicates Ã¢â¬Å"how fast [a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s] profits may grow and the expected return on capitalÃ¢â¬ (p. 14). A countryÃ¢â¬â¢s actual GDP can increase or decrease due to changes in inflation, so since real GDP is adjusted for changes in price, it is a truer measurement for comparison purposes. To present an apples to apples comparison, this section willShow MoreRelatedEconomic Growth Of Post War Japan1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand reconstruct their economy. It is revealed that the Japanese economy was on its way to recovery, which received a rapid development since the war, and t he reconstruction of Japan had spent less than forty years to become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest economy in the 1980s. 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CULTURAL INFLUENCES Ã¢â¬Å"It should not be surprising that Japanese marketing practices vary from traditional Western marketing practices because marketing is the process of satisfying wants and needs and these desires vary tremendously among cultures,Ã¢â¬ (Howard, 1999). The Japanese have been noted as leaders in marketingRead MoreJap The End Of World War II1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAt the end of World War II, the United States took occupation of Japan in an under the pretext of leading the nation toward a path of democracy. However, it appears that the intent of the United States has changed over time. Instead of helping Japan in the years after WWII, the United States used Japan as a pawn to better its own interests. In 1946, General MacArthur the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) asked United States citizens to take the responsibility of writing a new constitutionRead MoreLife Saving Weapons Of Mass Destruction1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaround the world. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, which had taken a great hit later in the war, began to improve with the aid from the United States. The modern public is now well aware of the extensive damage these weapons caused, which has prevented further deployments of nuclear bombs, keeping the global public protected from nuclear warfare. With the lives lost in the decimated cities, there continue to be many more preserved. On the sixth and ninth of August in 1945, the United States dropped Ã¢â¬Å"Little BoyÃ¢â¬ andRead MoreThe Impact Of World War II On American Society1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFinal Essay When the United States launches itself into a war, whether it be willingly or unwillingly, it almost guarantees that the war will bring some amount of change to the American society. The United States has been historically very flexible in adapting to the needs that wars, as well as other major events, bring to American society. Whether it be with the economy, foreign affairs, etc. there is usually always a change that results in the United States from a war. For example, after the CivilRead MoreThe Meiji Restoration: A Crucial Moment in the History of Japan965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesterms of political power and the third largest national economy after the United States and China as per the 2011 figures. The development of the Japanese economy to reach such a status happened in time and especially after the Restoration of the Meji Dynasty in 1868. Since then, Japan was in constant contact with the western world especially with the United States. The Meji Restoration was a crucial moment in the history of the Japanese state and its culture because it provided the historical breakaway
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What lies behind the attraction between the sexes? Sexuality is a subject about which no one is neutral. Everyone has a sexual nature, everyone has a need for sexuality, everyone has a sexual personality that has been formed by home, schooling, the trial and error of life experience, and whatever they pick up along the way from the subtle and notosoosubtle influences of the society in which they live. In seeking to make sense of our sexuality we must look to its origins. Where does our sexuality come from? In this article, I would like to look at two approaches to that question. Is the mystique and the romance, the music and the moonlight, just nature s way of hoodwinking men and women to reproduce? One is the prevalent,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They re not half individuals; man is a fullofledged personality and woman is a fullofledged personality. But there are elements in their transcendental persona, in their completeness, that remain incomplete if they don t find each other. There s something missing in each of them; they were once part of a greater whole. To put it in more mystical, or more divine, terms: they re really searching to become one with God. The human race is in essence one entity, a maleofemale singularity. When man and woman come together and unite in a marital union, they recreate the divine image in which they were both formed as one. We have a split of two energies, and a yearning and inclination to become one whole The teachings of Kabbalah take this a step further, seeing the male/female dynamic not just as two sexes within a species. According to the Kabbalah, these are two forms of energy that, in the most abstract form, are referred to as an internal energy and a projective energy. Feminine energy and masculine energy exist in each man and in each woman, and in every part of nature. Even Godliness is sometimes described in the feminine and sometimes in the masculine. Contrary to the common perception of the patriarchal God of the Bible, many ofShow MoreRelatedThe Story Teaches Us About The Art Of Storytelling924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesplace will draw a reader into a story. Why that person did what they did will intrigue the audience more than stating Ã¢â¬Å"this person did this.Ã¢â¬ Who that character is as a person will connect people to that character than an underdeveloped character. The ending of the story explains this when she wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Now try How and Why.Ã¢â¬ How a person got to the place they are at is one of the most important factors in a story. Story A begins by stating John and Mary fall in love and get married. They both have worthwhileRead MoreNoli Me Tangere Controversies1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Sir Gino Jose Ortiz Ã¢â¬Å"LOVEÃ¢â¬ Why do people fall out of Love? My friends, no one not in my situation can appreciate the sadness of having lose someone that I truly love. Loving someone is priceless. You would do anything just to make your loved one happy. You would promise the stars and the sun and even the moon just to please the one you love. To be in love is a magical feeling that you would not want to lose. To fall in love is an indescribable feeling, a feeling thatRead MoreFall Of Love And Meet The Love Of Your Life960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFall in love and meet the love of your life, discuss thirty-six questions with a stranger and experience true love. Scientists, psychologists, and researchers continue searching for ways to provide answers to love. Helen Fisher, Alexandra Redcay, and Mandy Catron each attempt to dissect love, however, at the end of each seminar, they leave us with the same unanswered questions. How is love conceived, why do people fall in love, what makes people fall in love, why do we choose to fall in love withRead MoreWhat is Love? Essay1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is Love? Romantic Love Is love chemical? Love cant be just pheromones, surely body chemistry changes. Although, perhaps that is why people break up after a while. Maybe they were attracted to each other at one point, but then the pheromones they were giving off change and the other person is no longer attracted to them. What is attraction based on? What attracts one person to another? People have said they have fallen in love before meeting in person, thanks to the InternetRead MoreWhy Do People Fall in Love Essay1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhy do people fall in love? A question many of us find us asking ourselves in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Many of us have been hurt by love and therefore have refused to neither use nor believe that there is such a word or feeling that exists in the universe. People fall in love for many reasons; some donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know why they end up in love. I believe people fall in love for three life-based reasons, to expand the self and to increase our abilities and our effectiveness in other words self-expansion, lackRead More Mid Summer nights Dream Essays1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 1. What kind of CONFLICT do we see in ACT I, Scene I? Who is involved? Egeus is a father that only wants best for his daughter Hermia. Hermia is in love with a man named Lysander, and the man her father wants her to marry is Demetrius. Lysander thinks up of an idea and tells Hermia to sneak out into the woods the next night so that they may get married at his auntÃ¢â¬â¢s house just outside of Athens. Helena, Hermia best friend loves Demetrius, but realizes he only has eyes for Hermia. Helena tells DemetriusRead MoreRomeo And Juliet : True Love1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages-Cebrian 1 Magdalena Cebrian 02/16/17 Cid, English 1 2A Romeo and Juliet: True love The love that Romeo and Juliet had was very intense they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t supposed to be together because of family feud. The capulets and montagues are two different families that have different things that aren t common on each other. Due to this Romeo and Juliet are conscious that what they have can t happen but true love can cause people to take many risk. For example Romeo and Juliet canÃ¢â¬â¢t be together but theyRead MoreHjjh, H1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesits not like Im proposing black magic or suggesting any of these techniques will force someone to fall in love with you against their will. (If they did, Id currently be shacked up with Brad Pitt.) What they will do though is nudge the odds a lot higher in your favor. Is that really so bad? I dont think so. Go on, keep reading. You know you want to... Watch Video: Trick Them Into Falling In Love With You Hang Around Lots... but Then Be Unavailable The more you interact with someone, the moreRead MoreLove Is The Most Powerful Emotion1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI choose to write my paper on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s love? Do you know what love is? Why do we ask what love is? Love can be many of things people have their own opinions of love and what love actually is. Love is not only intimate. As a person first falls in love at least a thousand brain parts start to light up. The brain release hormones, feelings and butterflies. Love is also loving a person unconditionally no matter what. Love is the most powerful emotion a human being can experience. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society itÃ¢â¬â¢sRead More What is Love? Essay648 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLove, Love, Love. We all think about it, dream about it, sing about it, and even lose sleep worrying about it, but why? Love is such a small word paired with a vital meaning. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s universal, easy to spell, difficult to define, but impossible to live without. When we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have it, we search for it, when we find it, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do with it, when we have it, we fear losing it. Love is the constant source of happiness and sorrow. I am young and I havent a clue as to what love is, let alone